Currently, the treatment of diabetes in the vast majority of cases is symptomatic and aims to eliminate existing symptoms without eliminating the cause of the disease, as effective treatment of diabetes has not yet been developed.
Depending on the type of diabetes, patients are prescribed insulin injection or taking inside drugs with a sugar-lowering effect. Patients should follow a diet, the quality and quantity of which also depends on the type of diabetes.
A diet for diabetes mellitus is a necessary part of treatment, as well as the use of sugar-reducing drugs or insulin. Without following a diet, it is impossible to compensate for carbohydrate metabolism. It should be noted that in some cases, in diabetes type 2, only a diet is sufficient to compensate for carbohydrate metabolism, especially in the early stages of the disease. In the case of type 1 diabetes, keeping a diet is vital for the patient, diet disturbance may lead to hypo- or hyperglycemic coma, and in some cases, death of the patient.
The task of diet therapy for diabetes is to ensure a uniform and adequate physical activity of carbohydrate intake into the patient’s body. Diet should be balanced in terms of protein, fats and calories. It should be completely eliminated easily digestible carbohydrates from the diet, except in cases of hypoglycemia. In case of type 2 diabetes, it is often necessary to correct body weight.
Self-control of glycemia levels is one of the main measures to achieve effective long-term compensation for carbohydrate metabolism. Due to the fact that it is impossible at the current technological level to fully imitate the secretory activity of the pancreas, blood glucose level fluctuations occur during the day. This is influenced by many factors, including physical and emotional stress, the level of consumed carbohydrates, related diseases and conditions.
Since it is impossible to keep the patient in hospital all the time, the monitoring of the condition and a slight correction of short insulin doses is entrusted to the patient. Self-monitoring of glycemia can be done in two ways. The first one is an approximate test strip, which determines the level of glucose in urine with the help of qualitative reaction. If there is glucose in urine, it is necessary to check the urine for acetone content. Acetonuria – a statement for hospitalization and evidence of ketoacidosis. This method of assessing glycemia is quite approximate and does not allow us to fully monitor the state of carbohydrate metabolism.
A more modern and adequate method of assessing the state is the use of glucometer. Glucometer is a device for measuring glucose levels in organic liquids (blood, liquor, etc.). There are several methods of measurement. Recently, portable glucose meters for measurements at home have become widely used. It is enough to place a drop of blood on a disposable indicator plate attached to the device glucose oxidase biosensor, and after a few seconds the blood glucose level (glycemia) is known.
It should be noted that the readings of two glucose meters from different firms may differ, and the level of glycemia shown by the glucometer is usually 1-2 units higher than the actual value. Therefore, it is desirable to compare the glucometer readings with those obtained in a polyclinic or inpatient unit.
Insulin treatment aims to compensate carbohydrate metabolism as much as possible, prevent hypo- and hyperglycemia and thus prevent complications of diabetes. Insulin treatment is vital for persons with type 1 diabetes and can be used in a number of situations for persons with type 2 diabetes.