Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which blood sugar levels are constantly high. It would seem – so what’s the big deal?
“Over-sweetened” blood leads to the appearance of free radicals that damage cells in the body. And also insidious glucose combines with proteins and DNA, turning them into substances that make the arterial walls thicken. Vessels narrow, and this leads to heart disease.
If the excess sugar is not removed from the blood in time, a person will gradually stop orienting themselves in space, will begin to rave and lose consciousness. Without medical care, a diabetic with “jumped” sugar can die.
Since the system responsible for the transfer of sugar from blood to cells can “break down” in several different ways, diabetes mellitus is also different, and it should be treated in different ways.
In this article we will talk about three types of diabetes, explain where the disease comes from, and what to do with it.
Diabetes mellitus type 1
A person gets sick if the cells of the pancreas can not produce insulin – the hormone responsible for the transfer of nutritional glucose from blood to cells. “Insulin-dependent” diabetes mellitus usually occurs in childhood or adolescence.
Type 1 diabetes occurs due to a failure in the immune system, in which the immunity begins to attack the β-cells of the pancreas. Less often, the disease develops due to viral diseases and stress.
Signs of the disease appear sharply, so it is impossible not to notice them. A person feels excitement and a terrible thirst, and at the same time, constantly “running” to the toilet. His breath smells of acetone, his skin itches, and his head hurts. If a person is not helped, he may fall into a coma and die.
They treat diabetes mellitus type 1 with regular injections of insulin. Unfortunately, there is no other way to help such people: there is still no way to support and “revive” the dead β cells of the pancreas.
Diabetes mellitus type 2
The disease occurs if the body stops producing enough insulin, or the sensitivity to it decreases. However, there is nothing wrong with β cells of the pancreas. “Insulin-independent” diabetes, as a rule, affects people over the age of 40.
Diabetes of the 2nd type occurs in people who have got weak sensitivity to insulin from their parents. In addition to them, in the risk group, people who like to eat more and move less. To cope with the continuous flow of glucose, pancreatic cells are throwing more and more insulin into the blood every day, “tear themselves apart” and stop coping with the production of the hormone, due to which over time the diabetes develops.
Signs of disease appear late, so that people with diabetes often learn about their disease, accidentally giving blood for analysis. Because of this type 2 diabetes is often detected only when excess blood glucose has done its “black business”: provoked hypertension, atherosclerosis or coronary artery disease.
Therefore, if an adult suddenly begins to feel itching and unusual thirst, if he regularly falls asleep, he is quickly tired at work, is often ill or has a tingling sensation in his legs, you should see a doctor as soon as possible. The sooner diabetes can be detected, the easier it is to control it later.
Diabetes is treated in a comprehensive way: they drink medicines that reduce blood sugar, try to eat as little fat and sweets as possible, and try to move more. It is impossible to fully cure type 2 diabetes, but you can change your life so that the diabetes does not interfere with its joy.
Diabetes mellitus type 3
A person gets diabetes mellitus type 3 because of serious problems with the pancreas. The disease develops due to inflammation, tumors, or if the pancreas was removed during surgery.
Diabetes of type 3 is similar to diabetes of type 1 and type 2 at the same time. If you have ever had a problem with the pancreas, do not keep it a secret from your doctor to avoid a wrong diagnosis.